Научное обоснование гипнозаКатегория: Гипнотерапия, Научные исследования
В данной статье предоставлен перечень научных работ и клинических исследований, подтверждающих эффективность применения гипноза в терапии. Количество этих исследований увеличивается с каждым годом. Материал по понятным причинам на английском языке, заниматься переводом пока нет времени.
Alfred A. Barrios, Ph.D. провел мета-анализ существующей на тот момент научной литературы чтобы сравнить эффективность различных видов терапии:
- Психоанализ — уровень успешности 38%, в среднем за 600 сеансов.
- Поведенческая терапия (Wolpian) — уровень успешности 72%, в среднем за 22 сеанса.
- Гипнотерапия — уровень успешности 93%, в среднем за 6 сеансов.
Источник: Barrios, Alfred A. «Hypnotherapy: A Reappraisal,» Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice (1970)
Далее следует перечень опубликованных научных работ, сгруппированных по разным заболеваниям.
Социальные страхи и фобии
- Hypnosis in the Treatment of Social Phobia (Rogers 2008)
- Hypnosis in the multi-modal treatment of chronic anxiety (Ellsmore 2001)
- Hypnosis and Anxiety: Early Interventions (Bryant 2008)
- Hypnosis with Treatment for the Anxiety Disorders (Evans & Coman 2003)
- Hypnosis in the Treatment of Anxiety (Smith 1990)
- Hypnotherapy for Anxiety, Phobias and Psychophysiological Disorders (Golden 2006)
- Cognitive Hypnotherapy for Anxiety Disorders (Golden 2012)
- Hypnosis for Anxiety Reduction and Ego enhancement (Baker 2001)
- Phobias and intense fears: Facilitating their treatment with hypnosis (Crawford & Barabasz 1993)
- The Additive Benefit of Hypnosis and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Treating Acute Stress Disorder (Bryant et al. 2005)
- Hypnotherapy and Cognitive Behaviour Therapy of Acute Stress Disorder: A 3-year Follow-up (Bryant et al. 2006)
- Hypnosis in the Treatment of Women with Anxiety Disorders (Schoenberger 2000)
- Using Hypnotherapy to Overcome Examination Anxiety (Stanton 1993)
- A Simple Hypnotic Approach to Treat Test Anxiety in Medical Students and Residents (Hebert 1984)
- The Place of Hypnosis in Psychiatry: Its Applications in Treating Anxiety Disorders and Sleep Disturbances (Kraft 2006)
- Hypnosis to Enhance Time Limited Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy for Anxiety (Nolan 2008)
- Treating Pain, Anxiety, and Sleep Disorders in Children and Adolescents (Kuttner 2009)
- Hypnotic Treatment of Anxiety in Children (Wester & William 2007).
- Clinical Efficacy of Hypnotherapy in the Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (Zhao et al 2005)
- Hypnosis in the Treatment of Severe Anxiety (Brown 1998)
Другие страхи и фобии
- Hypnosis as a Possible Virtual Reality Context in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for an Environmental Phobia (Walters & Oakley 2003)
- Hypnotherapy for vomiting phobia in a 40-year-old woman. (McKenzie 1994)
- Use of in vivo and in vitro desensitization in the treatment of mouse phobia: Review and case study (Kraft 2010)
- Treatment of dental fear and anxiety (Shaw & Niven 1996)
- A vomiting phobia overcome by one session of flooding with hypnosis (Wijesinghe 1974)
- The Use of Hypnosis in the Treatment of Driving Phobia (Hill & Bannon-Ryder 2005)
- Creating a virtual reality in hypnosis: a case of driving phobia (Kraft 2004)
- Fear of injections: the value of hypnosis in facilitating clinical treatment (Medd 2001)
- Hypnosis in the treatment of dental fear and phobia (Forgione 1988)
Student test anxiety : Students taught self-hypnosis showed a significant reduction in anxiety scores (maintained at 6-month follow-up) then a control group.1
Public speaking : The group who received hypnosis had a greater expectation for change and that change was achieved, than those who had non-hypnotic treatment.2
Fear of flying : 50% of patients afraid of flying were improved or cured after Hypnosis treatment.3
1Stanton, H. E. (1994)
2Schoenberger, N. E.; Kirsch, I.; Gearan, P.; Montgomery, G.; Pastyrnak, S.L. (1997).
3Spiegel, D. (1998) Report in the Harvard Mental Health Letter, September 1998, vol. 15, p. 5-6
- Stuttering modification using hypnosis (Moss & Oakley, 1997)
- Hypnosis as a Technique for the Treatment of Stuttering (Zloof & Ezrati-Vinacour, 2015)
- Hypno-Behavioral Therapy in the Case of a Traumatic Stutterer (Dempsey & Granich, 1978)
- Hypnotherapy and stuttering. (McCord & Hallack, Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis).
Hypnosis has been shown to alleviate the subjective distress of patients with asthma: there were less frequent attacks, and less medication was required. 1
In another study comparing Hypnosis and relaxation therapy the improvement with the Hypnotherapy group was much greater. And only Hypnosis subjects showed an improvement in physiologic measures of respiration. 2
1 Maher-Loughnan, G.P. (1970). «Hypnosis and AutoHypnosis for the Treatment of Asthma.» International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 18, 1- 14.
2 Maher-Loughnan, G.P., MacDonald, N., Mason, A.A. & Fry, L. (1962). «Controlled Trial of Hypnosis in the Symptomatic Treatment of Asthma.» British Medical Journal, 2, 371-376.
Роды без боли
Hypnotherapy has been used successfully to prolong pregnancy and prevent premature delivery. 1
In Britain 55% of birthing women using hypnosis required no medication for pain relief, compared with 22% of women in non-hypnosis groups. In two other reports 58% of women using hypnotic analgesia required no medication. And five other reports quoted 60-79% of women using hypnosis required no medication. Check out www.easybirthing.com/science_and_research .
In another study subjects given hypnosis reported reduced pain, shorter stage 1 labours, less medication, higher Apgar scores, more frequent spontaneous deliveries than other group. Some had lower depression scores after birth than the other groups.2
1Schwartz, M. (1963) The Cessation of Labor Using Hypnotic Techniques.» American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 5, 211-213.
2Harmon, T.M., Hynan, M., & Tyre, T.E. (1990). «Improved obstetric outcomes using hypnotic analgesia and skill mastery combined with childbirth education.» Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 525, 530, 1990.
Cognitive Hypnotherapy for Depression: An Empirical Study: To investigate the effectiveness of cognitive hypnotherapy (CH), hypnosis combined with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), on depression, 84 depressives were randomly assigned to 16 weeks of treatment of either CH or CBT alone. At the end of treatment, patients from both groups significantly improved compared to baseline scores. However, the CH group produced significantly larger changes in Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Hopelessness Scale. Effect size calculations showed that the CH group produced 6%, 5%, and 8% greater reduction in depression, anxiety, and hopelessness, respectively, over and above the CBT group. The effect size was maintained at 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. This study represents the first controlled comparison of hypnotherapy with a well-established psychotherapy for depression, meeting the APA criteria for a “probably efficacious” treatment for depression. 1
Alternative Treatments for Long-Term Depressed Mood: Meditation and Hypnosis The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness to two alternative treatments for long-term depressed mood: mindfulness meditation and hypnosis. The need to find effective treatments for those suffering from long-term low-to-moderate level depression has been known for over a century. Although, there have been some recent advances in the types of drug and psychotherapy treatments available for this condition, some people do not respond to such interventions, have considerable side effects (from the drugs), or are not satisfied for other reasons with these treatment options.
The present study represents an innovative investigation into two alternatives to traditional treatments for long-term depressed mood: mindfulness meditation (plus gentle hatha yoga) and hypnosis in a group therapy format. Although both meditation and hypnosis have shown success in treating stress, anxiety, and pain in studies of non-clinical populations, neither has been systematically investigated as a possible treatment for long-term depressed mood.2
1Assen Alladin and Alisha Alibhai (2000) The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis; Volume 55, Number 2 — May 2000.
2Spiegel, D. MD; Butler, L.D. Ph.D. Xin-Hua Chen; Abramson, M. DDS, Waelde, L. Ph.D. Mental Insight Foundation
Most clinicians and researchers agree that stress affects the course of dermatitis and eczema, and reducing stress levels has a positive effect on the course of the disease. Emotional factors have been shown to have a strong correlation with onset of the disease and also with flare-ups. Further more, several documented case studies have revealed that hypnosis can offer a successful treatment for sufferers.
Kantor, S.D. (1990).Stress and psoriasis. Psoriasis Research Institute, Palo Alto, California 94301. Cutis (USA) Oct 1990, 46 (4) p321-2
Hypnosis was found to be effective in reducing pain and discomfort associated with repeated unpleasant medical interventions in a study of children with cancer.1
A significant reduction of pain and dysphoria was found following Hypnosis in a study of 19 patients with a variety of musculoskeletal disorders.2
1Hilgard, E.R. (1977). «Divided Consciousness: Multiple Controls in Human Thought and Action». NY: John Wiley. 1977
2Domangue, B.B., Margolis, C.G., Lieberman, D. & Kaji, H. (1985). Biochemical Correlates of Hypnoanalgesia in Arthritic Pain Patients.» Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 46, 235-238
Hypnotherapy is one of the most successful treatment methods, giving 80+% success rate for abdominal pain and distension. It often results in assisting with other problems such as migraine and tension headaches. With patients who have severe chronic IBS, it was Hypnotherapy patients that showed dramatic improvement in all measures, and they maintained that improvement at a two year follow-up.
Whorwell P.J; Prior A; Faragher E.B. (1988 & 1987). Whorwell, P.J., Prior, A. & Faragher, E.B. (1984). «Controlled Trial of Hypnotherapy in the Treatment of Severe Refractory Irritable-Bowel Syndrome.» Lancet, pp. 1232-1234. Whorwell, P.J., Prior, A. & Colgan, S.M. (1987). «Hypnotherapy in Severe Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Further Experience.» Gut, 28, 423-425.
Синдром раздраженного кишечника
There are a number of clinical studies and a body of research on the effectiveness of hypnotherapy in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Likewise, there exists research demonstrating the efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in the treatment of IBS. However, there is little written about the integration of CBT and hypnotherapy in the treatment of IBS and a lack of clinical information about IBS-induced agoraphobia. This paper describes the aetiology and treatment of IBS-induced agoraphobia. Cognitive, behavioural, and hypnotherapeutic techniques are integrated to provide an effective cognitive-behavioural hypnotherapy (CBH) treatment for IBS-induced agoraphobia. This CBH approach for treating IBS-induced agoraphobia is described and clinical data are reported. (2)
Golden W.L. (2000) The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis; Volume 55, Number 2 — May 2000
Хронические головные боли и мигрень
Hypnosis is highly effective in the treatment of chronic migraine headaches. All Hypnotic methods appear to be superior to standard treatment relying on pharmacological approaches alone. Patients treated with Hypnosis had a significant reduction in severity and the number of attacks compared to a control group treated with traditional medications. At the one year follow-up the number of patients in the Hypnosis group who had no headaches for over three months was significantly higher.
Anderson, J.A., Basker, M.A, Dalton, R. (1975). «Migraine and Hypnotherapy.» International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 23, 48-58.
The 12-member National Institute of Health Technology Assessment Panel on Integration of Behavioral and Relaxation Approaches into the Treatment of Chronic Pain and Insomnia (1996) reviewed outcome studies on hypnosis with cancer pain and concluded that research evidence was strong and that other evidence suggested hypnosis may be effective with some chronic pain, including tension headaches. This paper provides an updated review of the literature on the effectiveness of hypnosis in the treatment of headaches and migraines, concluding that it meets the clinical psychology research criteria for being a well-established and efficacious treatment and is virtually free of the side effects, risks of adverse reactions, and ongoing expense associated with medication treatments.
Hammond C. (2000) The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis; Volume 55, Number 2 — May 2000
In a recent stop smoking study, where smokers attended individual hypnotherapy for stop smoking over three sessions, 81% had stopped smoking after the treatment ended, and at a 12 month follow-up nearly 50% remained smoke free. And 95% of the people were satisfied with their treatment.
Elkins GR, Rajab MH. (2004) «Clinical hypnosis for Smoking Cessation: preliminary results of a three session intervention.» International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 2004 Jan; 52 (1):73-81
Преодоление стресса и перенапряжения
A trial compared Hypnosis with biofeedback or a combination of both. All groups had significant reduction in blood pressure.1 However, at six-month follow-up only patients receiving Hypnosis had maintained the reduction.2
1Friedman, H. & Taub, H. (1977). «The Use of Hypnosis and Biofeedback Procedures for Essential Hypertension.» International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 25, 335-347.
2Friedman, H. & Taub, H. (1978). «A Six Month Follow-up of the Use of Hypnosis and Biofeedback Procedures in Essential Hypertension.» American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 20, 184-188
Patients trained with Hypnosis before surgery had significantly shorter stays in hospital. Research shows that Hypnosis methods have been used successfully for anxiety associated with medical procedures.
Rapkin, D.A., Straubing, M., Singh, A. & Holroyd, J.C. (1988). «Guided Imagery and Hypnosis: Effect on Acute Recovery from Head and Neck Cancer Surgery» Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Asheville, N.C. Spiegel, D, (1998). Report in the Harvard Mental Health Letter, September 1998, vol. 15, p. 5-6.